growth rate

This slowing of the speed of growth displays growing environmental resistance which becomes proportionately extra important at larger population densities. In the starting stages of the investment, private equity investment has very little or no cash, which is also used to decrease the company’s debt. Later on, the excess cash flows will be paid to the equity investors in the form of returns.

indifference curve

Generally, with the term inflation, people perceive a sudden increase in the prices of food and other products and services as well as a gradual drop in the purchasing power of consumers. However, what we usually do not pay much heed to is its impact on the job market and the unemployment rate, and that it could surprisingly turn out positive. What is known as the lost decade in Japan is widely considered to be an example of an L-shaped recovery. Leading up to the 1990s, Japan was experiencing remarkable economic growth. In the 1980s, the country ranked first for gross national production per capita.

What is ‘Phillips Curve’

The ‘yield’ on a bond refers to the interest rate that one receives when a bond matures. The ‘yield curve’ is a visual representation of the yields on bonds of different maturities. Typically, if expectations about the future are optimistic which literally means that people anticipate higher growth and positive inflation, then, the yield curve will be upward sloping . This indicates that bonds with longer maturities have higher yields than short-term bonds. Inflation- An economic scourge or a source of new opportunitiesWhether you are a small business owner, a corporate giant, a 5 to 9 employee, or a homemaker, ‘inflation’ gives jitters to all.

  • The uneven results of real exchange rate on trade stability have been initially reported by the American economist Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
  • The importance of the theory is that it provides an economic justification for the politically popular policy of cutting tax rates.
  • The first time the Fed used this policy was during World War II when they capped the borrowing cost of the Treasury in order to facilitate war time expenditure.
  • In economics, the ‘J curve’ is the time path of a rustic’s trade stability following a devaluation or depreciation of its foreign money, underneath a certain set of assumptions.
  • Of brief run or long term, the period during which the J-curve theory predicts that a rustic’s trade deficit will fall with a foreign money depreciation.

IMF expects India to grow at 7.4 per cent in FY19Asia continues to be the main engine of the world’s economy, accounting for more than 60% of global growth – three-quarters of which comes from China and India alone. The population dynamics of this can be studied by constructing a graph by plotting population changes as a function of time. Immigration is the number of individuals in a species moving from its local area to other area. Improving business climate, education projects to aid PC market in 2015On the consumer PC market, Kumar said the segment stood at 4.9 million units in 2014, with year-on-year growth of 1.7 per cent over 2013. E-commerce cos, Startups most sought after placement in top campuses like IITs, NIDs, IIMs; upsurge in salary, offersHere’s a look at how the e-commerce/startup hiring story has played out at the country’s top campuses. Economic recovery can take many forms, which is depicted using alphabetic notations.

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Initially, higher government spending helps to improve economic performance. But, after exceeding a certain amount of government spending, government taxes and intervention diminishes economic performance and growth rates. The Laffer Curve states that if tax rates are increased above a certain level, then tax revenues can actually fall because higher tax rates discourage people from working. The Curve was developed by economist Arthur Laffer to show the relationship between tax rates and the amount of tax revenue collected by governments. The curve is used to illustrate Laffer’s argument that sometimes cutting tax rates can increase total tax revenue. Here, we’ve been utilizing the elasticity of demand with respect to the change rate— defined as domestic/international ($e/yen).

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The changes in these portions will both cause a rise in the current account . When the currency is devalued, the trade deficit will initially worsen and eventually improve in the long term. There happens to be a lag between the response and devaluation on the given curve.

Human population growth curve isA. S-shaped curveB. Parabola curveC. J shaped curveD. Zig zag curve

This allows nutrients in the sediment at the bottom to mix in the water at uniform levels. The algae near the surface of water use sunlight and nutrients to grow exponentially and soon the pond’s surface became greenish color. During summer season, the sun warms the surface water and creates a strong temperature barrier which does not allow the nutrients from reaching the surface. In this example, the growth curve of Populations give a J-shaped curves and are usually controlled by physical aspects of the environment like weather. The effect of these abiotic factors is independent of the density of the population, this pattern is called density-independent growth.

Another key reason appears to be that the steepening of the yield curve is mainly due to the fall in short-term yields . This may be because as the lockdown eases, firms require immediate working capital and liquidity. The demand for long term securities remain low because firms have not yet started making investment plans for the long-term. The Engel curve illustrates how the spending on particular goods changes with household earnings. The appearance of an Engel curve is influenced by demographic items like age, gender, educational level, and all additional user traits.

The above diagram shows the U curve showing bundles of goods A and B. To the consumer, bundle A and B are the same as both of them give him the equal satisfaction. In other words, point A gives as much utility as point B to the individual. The consumer will be satisfied at any point along the curve assuming that other things are constant. An inferior good is a type of good whose demand declines when income rises.

However, the implications of j-curve definition have been found to be true only in the short term. Phillips curve fails to justify the situations of stagflation, when both inflation and unemployment are alarmingly high. This curve explains that inflation and unemployment have a firm and inverse relation. The recession of 1953 in the United States is another clear example of a V-shaped recovery. This recession was relatively brief, and mild with only a 2.2% decline in GDP and unemployment rate of 6.1%. Growth began to slow in the third quarter of 1953, but by the fourth quarter of 1954 was back at a pace well above the trend.


An indifference curve presents a combination of two goods that provide a buyer with an equal level of satisfaction and utility, thereby causing consumer indifference. By the curve, the buyer has an equal inclination for the combinations of goods given—i.e. The indifference curves are presented convex to the origin, and never two indifference curves can intersect. Cornette et al. studied the growth model of bacteria using a marine bacterium commonly found in mud around estuaries called Vibrio natriegens. They grow this bacteria in a nutrient medium in which its pH was adjusted to 6.25.

If the added and lost individuals are equal, the population will become stationary and is called zero growth. The kinked demand curve model seeks to explain the reason of price rigidity under oligopolistic market situations. On the other hand, if the organization increases the price, the competitor organizations would also cut down their prices. In such a case, the organization that has raised its prices would lose some part of its market share. The kinked demand curve of oligopoly was developed by Paul M. Sweezy in 1939. It advocates that the behavior of oligopolistic organizations remain stable when the price and output are determined.

Therefore, the chart for this recession and recovery would represent a V-shape. In economics and particularly in international trade, an offer curve shows the quantity of one type of product that an agent will export (“offer”) for each quantity of another type of product that it imports. It is because of this reason that the offer curve is known also as the reciprocal demand curve.

It may be famous that value of each exports and imports is equal to the quantity of exports or imports multiplied by the rupee price of exports and imports respectively. The depreciation (devalu­ation) of the foreign money affects both the quantity and rupee value of exports and imports. Empirical investigations of the J curve have sometimes focused on the effect of trade price changes on the commerce ratio, i.e. exports divided by imports, quite than the commerce steadiness, exports minus imports. A principle that implies that after a currency depreciation, the current account stability will first fall for a time period before starting to rise as is normally anticipated.

shaped recovery

Emigration is the permanent movement or departure of individuals of same species out of the location due to lack of food, scarcity of space etc. Due to emigration, species spread into new areas which results the decreasing of local population. From January to July 1980 the U.S. economy experienced the initial recession, and then entered recovery for almost a full year before dropping into a second recession in 1981 to 1982. An indifference curve shows a combination of two goods that give a consumer equal satisfaction and utility thereby making the consumer indifferent.

For example V-shaped recovery, U-shaped recovery, elongated U-shaped recovery, W-shaped recovery and L-shaped recovery. This implies that an oligopolistic market is characterized by a certain degree of price rigidity or stability, especially when there is a change in prices in downward direction. A rise in the Gini coefficient shows a rise in inequality – it shows the Lorenz curve is further away from the line of equality.

The J Curve is an financial theory that says the trade deficit will initially worsen after currency depreciation. A graph of this equation yields an S-formed curve; it’s a more-sensible mannequin of inhabitants growth than exponential growth. Initially, development is exponential because there are few people and ample sources out there. Then, as sources start to turn out to be limited, the expansion rate decreases. Finally, development levels off at the carrying capacity of the environment, with little change in inhabitants size over time.

Laffer Curve states that cutting taxes could, in theory, lead to higher tax revenues. Hence, we can say that the Lorenz curve is the graphical method of studying dispersion. As we can see, there are two lines in the graph of the Lorenz curve, the curved red line, and the straight black line. Following is the example to understand the Lorenz curve with the help of a graph.

The journey between this uncertain drop and rise represents the growth in the field for which we are considering it. The fund manager must modify the portfolio according to the changing environment to reduce the downside risk and formulate a stabilized portfolio. But to meet the increasing demand, the companies need to expand their operations and enhance their production level. The Breakeven Phase – In this phase, the curve reaches a point that is equal to the investment.

The red curve, the Lorenz curve, which we have been discussing, represents the actual distribution of wealth among the population. 24 years old Early Childhood (Pre-Primary School) Teacher Charlie from Cold Lake, has several hobbies and interests including music-keyboard, forex, investment, bitcoin, cryptocurrency and butterfly watching. Similarly, exported items will appear cheaper to foreigners, and so as their contracts are renegotiated, they may start to increase demand for U.S. exports. The worth of the watches may also be fastened by the terms of the contract. Such a contract provides assurances to the exporter that the watches he makes might be bought.